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Meanings of Cycad Names

Meanings of Cycad Names


In 2009, The Cycad Society compiled a list of the = meanings (etymologies) of all currently accepted cycad names. This was largely prepared by Jody Haynes, President of The Cycad Society. Please see the link at the bottom of this page for a PDF Version of this document.

Etymological Compendium of Cycad Names

 

Compiled by Jody Haynes

 

INTRODUCTION

The botanical (or scientific) names of cycads are Latin (or Latinized) binomials consisting of a genus and a specific epithet. While some of these botanical names are self-explanatory, many are not. This document has been compiled as an educational resource to provide the etymological origins (or ‘meanings’) of all currently accepted cycad names. It will be modified as needed based on new species described or published changes in taxonomy or nomenclature. It should be noted that there is still some controversy regarding the synonymy and/or validity of certain names, particularly within the genus Zamia. Notes have been added to specific entries which may be controversial or where the validity of a particular name deviates from the most recent published version of the World List of Cycads (Hill et al., 2007)—which was used as the basis for the list of names provided below. Except where noted, the etymologies follow Hill and Stevenson (2009) and/or Whitelock (2002).

 

 

GENERA

Below are the genera of extant cycads with their authorities, dates of publication, and etymological derivations.

 

Bowenia Hook. ex Hook.f. (1863) – Honoring Sir George F. Bowen (1821-1899), first governor of

Queensland, Australia.

 

Ceratozamia Brongn. (1846) – From the Greek ceratos (‘horn’) and Zamia (a genus of cycads), referring to its characteristic bicornate (‘two-horned’) sporophylls.

 

Chigua D.W. Stev. (1990) – From chigua, a Spanish rendering of the indigenous Indian name for cycads (most frequently applied to Zamia roezlii) in Panama and Colombia. (Note: Lindström [2009] recently provided evidence substantiating the synonymy of this genus with Zamia; this proposal is presently under consideration by the authors of the next edition of the World List [R. Osborne, pers. comm.].)

 

Cycas L. (1753) – From the Greek koikas, a kind of palm.

 

Dioon Lindl. (1843) – From the Greek dis (‘two’) and oon (‘eggs’), referring to the paired seeds on each megasporophyll. (Note: All genera except Cycas have two seeds per megasporophyll; therefore, the derivation of this name is actually not specific to members of this genus.)

 

Encephalartos Lehm. (1834) – From the Greek en (‘in’), cephale (‘head’), and artos (‘bread’), referring to flour obtained from the trunks (or ‘heads’) of some species by the indigenous tribespeople of Africa.

 

Lepidozamia Regel (1857) – From the Greek lepidos (‘scale’) and Zamia (a genus of cycads).

 

Macrozamia Miq. (1842) – From the Greek makros (‘large’) and Zamia (a genus of cycads).

 

Microcycas (Miq.) A. DC. (1868) – From the Greek micro (‘small’) and Cycas (a genus of cycads).

 

Stangeria T. Moore (1853) – Honoring Dr. Max Stanger, Surveyor General of Natal (now KwaZulu- Natal) Province, South Africa.

 

Zamia L. (1763) – From the Greek azaniae (‘pine cone’), referring to its ‘pine cone-like’ reproductive structures.

 

SPECIES & SUBSPECIES

Below are the currently recognized species and subspecies of extant cycads with their authorities, dates of publication, and etymological derivations. The list of names is based on the most recent World List of Cycads (Hill et al., 2007) plus any new names that have since been published—with citations of the original species descriptions included. Discrepancies with, or deviations from, the World List are noted where relevant.

 

 Bowenia spectabilis Hook. ex Hook. f. (1863) – From the Latin spectabilis (‘visually striking’ or ‘remarkable’), referring to the unusual habit.

 

Bowenia serrulata (W. Bull) Chamb. (1912) – From the Latin serrulatus (‘finely serrate’ or ‘toothed’), referring to the toothed leaflet margins.

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Ceratozamia alvarezii Pérez-Farrera, Vovides & Iglesias (1999) – Honoring Mexican conservationist Miguel Alvarez del Toro.

 

Ceratozamia becerrae Pérez-Farrera, Vovides & Schutzman (2004) – Honoring Prof. Marco E. Becerra, who collected this species for the first time.

 

Ceratozamia chimalapensis Pérez-Farrera & Vovides (Vovides et al., 2004) – Referring to Chimalapas, the region of endemicity in Oaxaca, Mexico, with the Latin termination -ensis (‘place of origin’).

 

Ceratozamia decumbens Vovides, Avendaño, Peréz-Farrera & González-Astorga (Vovides et al., 2008) – From the Latin decumbens (meaning prostrate on the earth with the tips turning up), alluding to the decumbent nature of trunks in older, mature plants.

 

Ceratozamia euryphyllidia Vasq. Torres, Sabato & D.W. Stev. (1986) – From the Greek eurys (‘broad’) and phyllon (‘leaf’), with the diminutive idion, although technically referring to leaves, this epithet is actually referring to the extraordinarily broad leaflets.

 

Ceratozamia fuscoviridis D. Moore (1878) – From the Latin fuscus (‘dark grayish-brown’ or ‘dusky’) and viridis (green), referring to the brownish undersides and green upper sides of the leaflets. (Note: The original description of this species was invalid because Moore used the word “provisional” in his publication; this name and the associated taxon was recently [and validly] resurrected by Osborne et al. [2009].)

 

Ceratozamia hildae G.P. Landry & M.C. Wilson (1979) – Honoring Hilda Guerra Walker, daughter of the original collector.

 

Ceratozamia hondurensis J.L. Haynes, Whitelock, Schutzman & R.S. Adams (Haynes et al., 2008) – From Honduras, with the Latin termination -ensis (‘place of origin’), referring to the country of endemicity.

 

Ceratozamia kuesteriana Regel (1857) – Honoring Baron K. von Kuester (?-1894), 19th century plant collector, with the Latin suffix -ana (‘a connection’).

 

Ceratozamia latifolia Miq. (1848) – From the Latin latus (‘wide’) and folium (‘leaf’), although technically referring to leaves, this epithet is actually referring to the distinctively broad leaflets.

 

Ceratozamia matudae Lundell (1939) – Honoring Eizi Matuda (1894-1978), Japanese born botanist who immigrated to Mexico, became a botanical explorer, and discovered this species in southern Chiapas.

 

Ceratozamia mexicana Brongn. (1846) – From Mexico, with the Latin suffix -ana (‘a connection’), referring to the country of origin.

 

Ceratozamia microstrobila Vovides & J.D. Rees (1983) – From the Greek micros (‘small’) and strobilus (‘pine cone’), referring to the small cones.

 

Ceratozamia miqueliana H. Wendl. (1854) – Honoring famed Dutch botanist F.A.W. Miquel (1811-1871).

 

Ceratozamia mirandae Vovides, Pérez-Farrera & Iglesias (2001) – Honoring Faustino Miranda, researcher of the flora of Chiapas.

 

Ceratozamia mixeorum Chemnick & T.J. Greg. & S. Salas-Mor. (1998) – Referring to the region of endemicity in the Sierra de Oaxaca (also known as the Sierra Mixes), and the Mixe Indians who inhabit it.

 

Ceratozamia morettii Vazques Torres & Vovides (1998) – Honoring Prof. Aldo Moretti of the Orto Botanico, University of Naples, Italy, and leading researcher of New World cycads.

 

Ceratozamia norstogii D.W. Stev. (1982) – Honoring Knut Norstog (1921-2003), American botanist and eminent student of cycads.

 

Ceratozamia robusta Miq. (1847) – From the Latin robusta (‘large’ or ‘robust’), referring to the large size.

 

Ceratozamia sabatoi Vovides, Vazques Torres, Schutzman & Iglesias (1993) – Honoring Prof. Sergio Sabato, cycad taxonomist of the Orto Botanico, University of Naples, Italy.

 

Ceratozamia santillanii Pérez-Farrera & Vovides (Pérez-Farrera et al., 2009) – Honoring Prof. Trinidad Alemán Santillán for his accomplishments as Professor of Botany and Ecology at the University of Science & Arts of Chiapas (UNICACH) and in training young biologists in Chiapas, Mexico.

 

Ceratozamia whitelockiana Chemnick & T.J. Greg. (1996) – Honoring Loran Whitelock of Los Angeles, California, eminent student and collector of cycads.

 

Ceratozamia vovidesii Pérez-Farrera & Iglesias (2007) – Honoring Dr. Andrew P. Vovides, pioneer researcher of Mexican cycads.

 

Ceratozamia zaragozae Medellin-Leal (1963) – Honoring General Ignacio Zaragoza (1829-1862), hero of the Mexican revolution.

 

Ceratozamia zoquorum Pérez-Farrera, Vovides & Iglesias (2001) – Honoring the Zoque Indians who inhabit the region of endemicity in Chiapas, Mexico.

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Chigua bernalii D.W. Stev. (1990) – Honoring Rodrigo Bernal, the Colombian botanist who first discovered and collected this species. (Note: Lindström [2009] recently provided evidence substantiating the synonymy of this taxon [and its associated name] with C. restrepoi. Also see the note above under the genus Chigua.) 

 

Chigua restrepoi D.W. Stev. (1990) – Honoring Padre Sergio Restrepo (1939-1989), Colombian botanist who re-located this species, accompanied and guided Knut Norstog and Dennis Stevenson during their field work, and was subsequently martyred. (Note: See the note above under the genus Chigua.)

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Cycas aculeata K.D. Hill & H.T. Nguyen (2004) – From the Latin aculeatus (‘prickly’), referring to the prominent spines on the petiole.

 

Cycas aenigma K.D. Hill & A. Lindstr. (Lindström et al., 2008) – From the Latin aenigma (‘to speak darkly’), the root of the English word enigma (‘a thing which cannot be satisfactorily explained’), referring to knowledge of this particularly distinctive species only as a cultivated plant.

 

Cycas angulata R. Br. (1810) – From the Latin angulatus (‘angled’), referring to the strong angle of insertion of the leaflets on the rachis.

 

Cycas annaikalensis Rita Singh & P. Radha (Singh & Radha, 2006) – Referring to the region of endemicity in the Annaikal Hills, western Ghats, India, with the Latin termination -ensis (‘place of origin’).

 

Cycas apoa K.D. Hill (1994) – From a rendering of the local vernacular name in the Kaka language, as spoken around the Sepik estuary in northwestern New Guinea, pronounced AP-wah, with the first syllable stressed but short, as in ‘cap’.

 

Cycas arenicola K.D. Hill (1993) – From the Latin arenarius (pertaining to sand), with the suffix -cola (‘dweller’ or ‘inhabitant’), referring to its occurrence in broken sandstone country.

 

Cycas armstrongii Miq. (1868) – Honoring John Armstrong (1820-1902), collector for Kew Gardens appointed to establish a government garden at Port Essington, Australia, in 1838.

 

Cycas arnhemica K.D. Hill (1994) – Referring to its occurrence in central Arnhem Land, Australia.

 

subsp. muninga Chirgwin & K.D. Hill (1996) – From a rendering of the vernacular name for this plant in the language of the Aboriginal people of Groote Eylandt. subsp. natja K.D. Hill (1996) – From a rendering of the vernacular name for this plant in the Bureia language of the local Aboriginal people.

 

Cycas badensis K.D. Hill (1996) – Referring to its occurrence on Badu Island, Australia, with the Latin termination -ensis (‘place of origin’).

 

Cycas balansae Warb. (1900) – Honoring Benedict Balansa (1825-1892), French naturalist and botanical explorer who collected extensively for the Museum of Natural History in Paris, and spent the years 1885-1892 collecting in Tonkin (North Vietnam), where he died.

 

Cycas basaltica C.A. Gardner (1923) – Referring to its occurrence on basaltic lithologies.

 

Cycas beddomei Dyer (1885) – Honoring English Col. Richard Henry Beddome (1830-1911), director of the Lal Bagh, or government gardens, Bangalore, and forestry botanist in India who (erroneously) first described it as C. revoluta.

 

Cycas bifida (Dyer) K.D. Hill (2004) – From the Latin bi (‘two’) and fidus (‘divided’), referring to the dichotomously divided leaflets.

 

Cycas bougainvilleana K.D. Hill (1994) – Referring to its center of distribution on Bougainville Island, South Pacific, with the Latin suffix -ana (‘a connection’).

 

Cycas brachycantha K.D. Hill (2004) – From the Greek brachys (‘short’) and acanthos (‘spine’), referring to the characteristically short petiolar spines.

 

Cycas brunnea K.D. Hill (1992) – From the late Latin brunneus (‘brown’), referring to the brown trichomes on new growth that distinguish it from related taxa.

 

Cycas cairnsiana F. Muell. (1876) – Honoring Sir William Wellington Cairns (1828-1888), governor of Queensland, Australia.

 

Cycas calcicola Maconochie (1978) – From the Latin calcareus (pertaining to lime), with the suffix -cola (‘dweller’ or ‘inhabitant’), referring to its occurrence on limestone outcrops.

 

Cycas campestris K.D. Hill (1994) – From the Latin campestris (pertaining to plains or meadows), referring to its occurrence in open, grassy country.

 

Cycas canalis K.D. Hill (1994) – From the Latin canalis (‘canal’ or ‘channel’), referring to its occurrence at Channel Point, Australia.

 

Cycas candida K.D. Hill (2004) – From the Greek candida (‘white’), referring to the white seeds.

 

Cycas chamaoensis K.D. Hill (1999) – From the mountain of Khao Chamao, Thailand, the type locality and only known habitat, with the Latin termination -ensis (‘place of origin’).

 

Cycas changjiangensis N. Liu (1998) – Referring to its occurrence in Changjiang County, western Hainan Province, China, with the Latin termination -ensis (‘place of origin’).

 

Cycas chevalieri Leandri (1931) – Honoring French botanist, explorer, and historian Auguste Jean Baptiste Chevalier (1873-1956), General Inspector of Agriculture and Forestry in Vietnam and collector of the type specimen.

 

Cycas circinalis L. (1753) – From the Latin circinus (‘spiral’), referring to the in-rolled leaflets of the developing leaves.

 

Cycas clivicola K.D. Hill (1999) – From the Latin clivis (‘cliff’), with the suffix -cola (‘dweller’ or ‘inhabitant’), referring to the cliff-dwelling habit and habitat. subsp. lutea K.D. Hill (1999) – From the Latin luteus (‘yellow’), referring to the yellow trunks.

 

Cycas collina K.D. Hill (2004) – From the Latin collinus (pertaining to hills), referring to its occurrence at moderate to high elevations in mountainous country of Vietnam.

 

Cycas condaoensis K.D. Hill & S.L. Yang (2004) – Referring to its endemic occurrence on the Con Dao group of islands off the coast of Vietnam, with the Latin termination -ensis (‘place of origin’).

 

Cycas conferta Chirgwin ex Chirgwin & Wigston (1993) – From the Latin confertu (‘crowded’), referring to the close crowding of the leaflets on the rachis.

 

Cycas couttsiana K.D. Hill (1992) – Honoring Pat and David Coutts, cycad enthusiasts of Townsville, Australia, who brought this species to botanical attention and who were endeavoring to ensure its conservation in habitat.

 

Cycas cupida P.I. Forst. (2001) – From the Latin cupidus (‘desirous’), alluding to the desirability of this plant to collectors.

 

Cycas curranii (J. Schust.) K.D. Hill (1995) – Honoring Hugh McCullom Curran III, American botanist who worked as forest officer for the Bureau of Forestry in Manila, Philippines, and collector of the type specimen.

 

Cycas debaoensis Y.C. Zhong & C.J. Chen (1997) – Referring to its occurrence in the county of Debao, western Guangxi Province, China, with the Latin termination -ensis (‘place of origin’).

 

Cycas desolata P.I. Forst. (1995) – From the Latin desolatus (‘ruinous’ or ‘desolate’), referring to the austere habitat near Charters Towers, northeastern Australia.

 

Cycas diannanensis Z.T. Guan & G.D. Tao (1995) – Referring to its occurrence in the municipality of Diannan, Gejiu County, Yunnan Province, China, with the Latin termination -ensis (‘place of origin’).

 

Cycas dolichophylla K.D. Hill (2004) – From the Greek dolichos (‘long’) and phyllon (‘leaf’), referring to the long leaves.

 

Cycas edentata de Laub. (1998) – From the Latin dentata (‘toothed’), with the Latin prefix e- (‘without’), referring to the smooth margins of the megasporophyll apices.

 

Cycas elephantipes A. Lindstr. & K.D. Hill (2003) – From a combination of ‘elephant’ and the Latin pes (‘foot’), referring to the distinctive, large, swollen base.

 

Cycas elongata (Leandri) D.Yue Wang (1996) – From the Latin elongatus (‘elongated’), referring to the elongated apical spine on the megasporophylls. (Note: This is not a constant character in this species.)

 

Cycas falcata K.D. Hill (1999) – From the Latin falcatus (‘falcate’ or ‘curved in a sickle-shape’), referring to the distinctively curved leaflets.

 

Cycas ferruginea F.N. Wei (1994) – From the Latin ferruginea (‘rusty red’), referring to the abundant, deep red tomentum on the new growth and persisting to some extent on the older leaves.

 

Cycas fugax K.D. Hill, T.H. Nguyen & K.L. Phan (2004) – From the Latin fugax (‘fleeting’ or ‘ephemeral’), referring to its near extinction before this species was recognized as a distinct botanical entity.

 

Cycas furfuracea W. Fitzg. (1918) – From the Latin furfuraceus (‘scurfy’), referring to the persistent trichomes on the leaves.

 

Cycas guizhouensis K.M. Lan & R.F. Zou (1983) – Referring to its occurrence in Guizhou Province, China, with the Latin termination -ensis (‘place of origin’).

 

Cycas hainanensis C.J. Chen (1975) – Referring to its occurrence in the island province of Hainan, China, with the Latin termination -ensis (‘place of origin’).

 

Cycas hoabinhensis K.L. Phan & T.H. Nguyen (2004) – Referring to its occurrence in Hoa Binh Province, northern Vietnam, with the Latin termination -ensis (‘place of origin’).

 

Cycas hongheensis S.Y. Yang & S.L. Yang (1996) – Referring to its occurrence near Honghe (the Red River), southeastern Yunnan, China, with the Latin suffix -ensis (‘place of origin’).

 

Cycas indica A. Lindstr. & K.D. Hill (Lindström & Hill, 2007) – Referring to its endemic occurrence in India.

 

Cycas inermis Lour. (1793) – From the Latin inermis (‘unarmed’), reference uncertain, since the petiole is not thornless—although the soft leaves in contrast to the stiff, pungent leaflets of C. revoluta may have suggested the name.

 

Cycas javana (Miq.) de Laub. (1996) – Referring to its occurrence on, and initial collection from, the island of Java, with the Latin suffix -ana (‘a connection’).

 

Cycas lacrimans A. Lindstr. & K.D. Hill (Lindström et al., 2008) – From the Latin lacrimans (‘crying’), referring to the drooping or weeping habit of the leaves.

 

Cycas lane-poolei C.A. Gardner (1923) – Honoring Charles Edward Lane-Poole (1885-1970), conservator of forests for Western Australia.

 

Cycas lindstromii S.L. Yang, K.D. Hill & T.H. Nguyen (1997) – Honoring Anders Lindström, cycad enthusiast from Stockholm, Sweden, and current curator of cycads at Nong Nooch Tropical Garden near Pattaya, Thailand, who assisted in the initial discovery of this species.

 

Cycas maconochiei Chirgwin & K.D. Hill (1996) – Honoring John Maconochie (1941-1984), botanist with Northern Territory, Australia, who had commenced a major revision of the genus Cycas. subsp. lanata K.D. Hill (1996) – From the Latin lanatus (‘woolly’), referring to the densely hairy cataphylls. subsp. viridis K.D. Hill (1996) – From the Latin viridis (‘green’), referring to the bright green leaves.

 

Cycas macrocarpa Griff. (1854) – From the Greek makros (‘large’) and karpos (‘fruit’), referring to the large seeds.

 

Cycas media R. Br. (1810) – From the Latin media (‘middle’), possibly referring to the morphologically intermediate form of this species in between the other two species of Cycas—C. angulata and C. thouarsii—that Robert Brown described in the same publication. subsp. banksii K.D. Hill (1996) – Honoring Sir Joseph Banks, botanist on Cpt. Cook’s voyage and the first European to collect this taxon. subsp. ensata K.D. Hill (1996) – From the Latin ensatus (‘sword’), referring to the unusually long, sharp cataphylls.

 

Cycas megacarpa K.D. Hill (1992) – From the Greek mega (‘large’) and karpos (‘fruit’), referring to the distinctive large seeds.

 

Cycas micholitzii Dyer (1905) – Honoring William Micholitz (1854-1932), discoverer of this species and a collector for Sander and Sons, an English nursery of the early 1900’s that first introduced it into cultivation.

 

Cycas micronesica K.D. Hill (1994) – Referring to its endemic occurrence in Micronesia.

 

Cycas montana A. Lindstr. & K.D. Hill (Lindström et al., 2009) – Referring to its mountainous habitat on Flores, Indonesia.

 

Cycas multipinnata C.J. Chen & S.Y. Yang (1994) – From the Latin pinnatus (‘pinnate’), with the compound prefix multi- (‘many’), referring to the complexly branched leaflets.

 

Cycas nathorstii J. Schust. (1932) – Honoring Swedish palaeobotanist Alfred Gabriel Nathorst (1850- 1921), professor at the Natural History Museum in Stockholm.

 

Cycas nitida K.D. Hill & A. Lindstr. (Lindström et al., 2008) – From the Latin nitida (‘shining’), referring to the extremely glossy leaves.

 

Cycas nongnoochiae K.D. Hill (1999) – Honoring the Nong Nooch Tropical Garden near Pattaya, Thailand, supporters of the study of Thai cycads.

 

Cycas ophiolitica K.D. Hill (1992) – From the Greek ophis or ophios (‘serpent’ or ‘snake’) and lithos (‘stone’ or ‘rock’); in combination, ‘ophiolite’ is used for the rock serpentinite, referring to its occurrence on serpentinite-derived soils.

 

Cycas orientis K.D. Hill (1994) – From the Latin orientis (‘of the east’), referring to its occurrence in the east of Arnhem Land, Australia.

 

Cycas pachypoda K.D. Hill (2004) – From the Greek pachys (‘thick’) and podos (‘foot’), referring to the distinctive broad trunk base.

 

Cycas panzhihuaensis L. Zhou & S. Y. Yang (1981) – Referring to its natural occurrence in the Panzhihua Prefecture of southern Sichuan Province, China, with the Latin termination -ensis (‘place of origin’).

 

Cycas papuana F. Muell. (1876) – Referring to its original collection from the British Territory of Papua, with the Latin suffix -ana (‘a connection’).

 

Cycas pectinata Buch.-Ham. (1826) – From the Latin pectina (‘comb’), referring to the long, comb-like teeth of the megasporophylls.

 

Cycas petraea A. Lindstr. & K.D. Hill (2003) – From the Latin petraeus (‘of rocky places’), referring to the habitat of bare limestone cliffs and boulders.

 

Cycas platyphylla K.D. Hill (1992) – From the Greek platys (‘broad’) and phyllon (‘leaf’), referring to the broad, sterile tip of the megasporophylls.

 

Cycas pranburiensis S.L. Yang, W. Tang, K.D. Hill & P. Vatcharakorn (1999) – Referring to its occurrence in the province of Pranburi, Thailand, with the Latin termination -ensis (‘place of origin’).

 

Cycas pruinosa Maconochie (1978) – From the Latin pruinosus (‘covered with a waxy whitish bloom’), referring to the glaucous, whitish-blue leaves.

 

Cycas revoluta Thunb. (1782) – From the Latin revolutus (‘rolled’), referring to the rolled leaflet margins.

 

Cycas riuminiana Porte ex Regel (1863) – Honoring Mr. Riumin, 1863 president of the Moscow Garden Tree Society.

 

Cycas rumphii Miq. (1839) – Honoring German-born Dutch naturalist Georg Eberhard Rumpf (a.k.a. Rumphius, 1628-1702), botanist, merchant, and physician with the Dutch East India Company in Ambon.

 

Cycas saxatilis K.D. Hill & A. Lindstr. (Lindström et al., 2008) – From the Latin saxatilis (‘dwelling among rocks’), referring to the soil-free cliff-face habitat.

 

Cycas schumanniana Lauterb. (1900) – Honoring German botanist Prof. Dr. Karl Moritz Schumann (1851- 1904), curator of the Botanical Museum of Berlin.

 

Cycas scratchleyana F. Muell. (1885) – Honoring English military engineer and colonial administrator Sir Peter Henry Scratchley (1835-1885), Special Commissioner for the Territory of New Guinea.

 

Cycas seemannii A. Braun (1876) – Honoring German naturalist and publisher Berthold Carl Seemann (1825-1871), collector of the type, who trained as a botanical collector and left most of his collections at Kew.

 

Cycas segmentifida D.Yue Wang & C.Y. Deng (1995) – From the Latin segmentatus (‘segmented’), referring to the finely dichotomously branching marginal spines of the megasporophyll lamina.

 

Cycas semota K.D. Hill (1996) – From the Latin semotus (‘remote’ or ‘distant’), referring to its occurrence in the farthest extremity of Cape York Peninsula, Australia.

 

Cycas sexseminifera F.N. Wei (1996) – From the Latin sex (‘six’) and seminifera (‘seed-bearing’), in the misplaced belief that the six seeds observed on the megasporophyll of the type specimen were diagnostic.

 

Cycas shanyaensis G.A. Fu (2006) – Referring to its occurrence in the Shanya district, southern Hainan Province, China, with the Latin termination -ensis (‘place of origin’).

 

Cycas siamensis Miq. (1863) – Referring to its occurrence in Thailand, known as the Kingdom of Siam when this species was described, with the Latin termination -ensis (‘place of origin’).

 

Cycas silvestris K.D. Hill (1992) – From the Latin silvestris (‘of the forests’), referring to the closed forest habitat.

 

Cycas simplicipinna (Smitinand) K.D. Hill (1995) – From the Latin pinna (‘first division of a compound leaf’), with the compound prefix simplici- (‘simple’), referring to the simple leaflets—in contrast to the divided leaflets of C. micholitzii, of which this species was initially regarded as a variety.

 

Cycas spherica Roxb. (1832) – From the Latin sphaerica (‘spherical’), referring to the rounded seeds.

 

Cycas sundaica Miq. ex A. Lindstr. & K.D. Hill (Lindström et al., 2009) – Referring to its endemic occurrence within the Sunda Island group, Indonesia.

 

Cycas swamyi Rita Singh & P. Radha (Singh & Radha, 2008) – Honoring Dr. B.G.L. Swamy (1918- 1980), who first observed and described the characteristic branching of this species in 1948.

 

Cycas szechuanensis C.Y. Cheng, W.C. Cheng & L.K. Fu (1975) – Referring to Szechuan (Sichuan) Province, China, with the Latin termination -ensis (‘place of origin’), in the mistaken assumption that this species was native to the region from which the cultivated type specimen was collected. (Note: It is actually known only from eastern Fujian Province, China.) subsp. fairylakea (D.Yue Wang) N. Liu (1996) – Referring to the Shenzhen Fairy Lake Botanic Garden, China, from which the cultivated type specimen was collected.

 

Cycas taitungensis C.F. Shen, K.D. Hill, C.H. Tsou & C.J. Chen (1994) – Referring to its occurrence in the prefecture of Taitung, a mountainous region in southeastern Taiwan, with the Latin termination -ensis (‘place of origin’).

 

Cycas taiwaniana Carruth. (1893) – Referring to Taiwan, from where this species was (erroneously) thought to originate, with the Latin suffix -ana (‘a connection’).

 

Cycas tanqingii D.Yue Wang (1996) – Honoring Tan-Qing, director of the Shenzhen Fairy Lake Botanic Garden in Shenzhen, China, at the time this species was described.

 

Cycas tansachana K.D. Hill & S.L. Yang (1999) – Honoring Kampon Tansacha, with the Latin suffix -ana (‘a connection’), current director of the Nong Nooch Tropical Gardens near Pattaya, Thailand, who was instrumental in its discovery.

 

Cycas thouarsii R. Br. ex Gaudich (1829) – Honoring French botanist Louis-Marie Aubert du Petit- Thouars (1758-1831), who worked extensively in Africa and who, in 1804, mistakenly identified it as the Indian species C. circinalis.

 

Cycas tropophylla K.D. Hill & S.L. Yang (2004) – From the Greek tropos (‘boat keel’) and phyllon (‘leaf’), referring to the distinctively keeled leaves, which are unique among the cycads of northern Vietnam.

 

Cycas tuckeri K.D. Hill (1996) – Honoring Robert Tucker (1955-1992), director of the Parks and Gardens Department, Townsville, Australia, and keen naturalist and horticulturist who recognized its distinctive nature.

 

Cycas vespertilio A. Lindstr. & K.D. Hill (Lindström et al., 2008) – From the Latin vespertilio (‘a bat’), from vesper (evening), literally ‘the little one of the evening’, referring to the wing-like extensions on the megasporophyll apex.

 

Cycas wadei Merrill (1936) – Honoring Dr. H. Windsor Wade (1886-1968), U.S.-born medical doctor working in the Philippines who brought this species to the attention of its author.

 

Cycas xipholepis K.D. Hill (1996) – From the Greek xiphos (‘sword’) and lepis (‘scale’), referring to the long, hard, pungent cataphylls.

 

Cycas yorkiana K.D. Hill (1996) – Referring to its occurrence in Cape York Peninsula, Australia, with the Latin suffix -ana (‘a connection’).

 

Cycas zambalensis Madulid & Agoo (Madulid & Agoo, 2005) – Referring to its endemic occurrence in Zambales, Luzon Island, Philippines, with the Latin termination -ensis (‘place of origin’).

 

Cycas zeylanica (J. Schust.) A. Lindstr. & K.D. Hill (2002) – From ‘Zeylona’, the Latinized rendering of Ceylon (Sri Lanka), referring to where the type was collected (as C. rumphii).

 

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Dioon angustifolium Miq. (1848) – From the Latin angusti- (‘narrow’) and folius (‘leaf’), although technically referring to leaves, this epithet is actually referring to the narrow leaflets.

 

Dioon argenteum T.J. Greg, Chemnick, S. Salas-Mor. & Vovides (2003) – From the Latin argenteus (‘of silver’), referring to the persistent silvery tomentum on the leaves.

 

Dioon califanoi De Luca & Sabato (1979) – Honoring Luigi Califano (1901-1976) of the Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei, Italy, who introduced the authors to the dioons of Mexico.

 

Dioon caputoi De Luca, Sabato & Vásq. Torres (1980) – Honoring Giuseppe Caputo, professor of botany and director of Orto Botanico, University of Naples, Italy.

 

Dioon edule Lindl. (1843) – From the Latin edulis (‘edible’), referring to the use of the seeds as food.

 

Dioon holmgrenii De Luca, Sabato & Vásq. Torres (1981) – Honoring Noel Herman Holmgren, taxonomist and curator at New York Botanical Garden.

 

Dioon mejiae Standl. & L.O. Williams (1951) – Honoring Dr. Isidoro Mejia H. (?-1950) of Danlí, Honduras, from whose garden the type specimen was collected.

 

Dioon merolae De Luca, Sabato & Vásq. Torres (1981) – Honoring Aldo Merola (1924-1980), director of the botanical garden of the University of Naples, Italy, in recognition of his knowledge and conservation of cycads.

 

Dioon purpusii Rose (1909) – Honoring Carl Anton Purpus (1853-1914), one of the leading researchers in Mexico at the turn of the 20th century.

 

Dioon rzedowskii De Luca, A. Moretti, Sabato & Vásq. Torres (1980) – Honoring Jerzy Rzedowski, prominent taxonomist and researcher of Mexican flora.

 

Dioon sonorense (De Luca, Sabato & Vázq. Torres) Chemnick & T.J. Greg. & S. Salas-Mor. (1998) – Referring to its occurrence in the Mexican state of Sonora.

 

Dioon spinulosum Dyer ex Eichler (1883) – From the Latin spinulosus (‘spiny’), referring to the spiny leaflet margins.

 

Dioon stevensonii Nicolalde-Morejón & Vovides (Nicolalde-Morejón et al., 2009) – Honoring Dennis Wm. Stevenson of the New York Botanical Garden, for his many contributions to cycad research.

 

Dioon tomasellii De Luca, Sabato & Vázq. Torres (1984) – Honoring Ruggero Tomaselli (1920-1982), professor of botany at the University of Pavia and president of the Italian Botanical Society.

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Encephalartos aemulans Vorster (1990) – From the Latin aemulans (‘equalling’), referring to the similar male and female cones.

 

Encephalartos altensteinii Lehm. (1834) – Honoring Karl Altenstein (1770-1840), 19th century Prussian statesman and patron of science.

 

Encephalartos aplanatus Vorster (1996) – From the Latin planatus (‘flat’), with the modifying prefix a- (‘not’), referring to the twisted and undulated leaflets.

 

Encephalartos arenarius R.A. Dyer (1956) – From the Latin arenarius (‘sandy’), referring to the habitat on relic beach dune deposits.

 

Encephalartos barteri Carruth. ex Miq. (1868) – Honoring Charles Barter (?-1859), collector of the type specimen in northern Nigeria.

 

Encephalartos brevifoliolatus Vorster (1996) – From the Latin brevis (‘short’) and foliola (‘leaflet’), referring to the shorter leaflets, which distinguish it from the similar E. laevifolius.

 

Encephalartos bubalinus Melville (1957) – From the Latin bubalinus (‘buff’), referring to the buff-brown tomentum on the cataphylls and leaf bases.

 

Encephalartos caffer (Thunb.) Lehm. (1834) – Referring to its occurrence in the Caffrara region of the eastern Cape Province, South Africa.

 

Encephalartos cerinus Lavranos & D.L. Goode (1989) – From the Latin cerina (‘wax’), referring to the heavy waxy coating that gives the leaves a bluish color.

 

Encephalartos chimanimaniensis R.A. Dyer & I. Verd. (1969) – Referring to its endemic occurrence in the Chimanimani Mountains, eastern Zimbabwe, with the Latin termination -ensis (‘place of origin’). 0

 

Encephalartos concinnus R.A. Dyer & I. Verd. (1969) – From the Latin concinnus (‘neat’ or ‘trim’), referring to the compact and attractive habit.

 

Encephalartos cupidus R.A. Dyer (1971) – From the Latin cupidus (‘desirable’), referring to the striking form, thought by the author to render it desirable to cycad collectors.

 

Encephalartos cycadifolius (Jacq.) Lehm. (1834) – From cycadis, a Latinized form of Cycas, with the Latin folius (‘leaf’), referring to the Cycas-like leaves.

 

Encephalartos delucanus Malaisse, Sclavo & Crosiers (1992) – Honoring Prof. Paolo Deluca, University of Naples, Italy, well-known student of cycads.

 

Encephalartos dolomiticus Lavranos & D.L. Goode (1988) – Referring to dolomite, a type of magnesium-rich limestone that makes up the soil in the region of endemicity, with the Latin suffix -iticus (‘belonging to’ or ‘having to do with’).

 

Encephalartos dyerianus Lavranos & D.L. Goode (1988) – Honoring 20th century South African botanist R. Allen Dyer (1900-1987), student and monographer of South African cycads.

 

Encephalartos equatorialis P.J.H. Hurter (1995) – Referring to its habitat near the equator (northern shore of Lake Victoria, Uganda).

 

Encephalartos eugene-maraisii I. Verd. (1945) – Honoring Eugene Marais (1872-1936), South African naturalist and writer who first reported this species.

 

Encephalartos ferox Bertol. f. (1851) – From the Latin ferox (‘fierce’), referring to the stiff, sharply spiny leaflets.

 

Encephalartos friderici-guilielmi Lehm. (1834) – Honoring Friedrich Wilhelm III (1770-1840) (Latinized to friderici guilielmi), 19th century king of Prussia and patron of science.

 

Encephalartos ghellinckii Lem. (1867) – Honoring Édouard de Ghellink de Walle, 19th century Belgian horticulturist and amateur botanist.

 

Encephalartos gratus Prain (1916) – From the Latin gratus (‘pleasing’), referring to the pleasing appearance.

 

Encephalartos heenanii R.A. Dyer (1972) – Honoring Denis Heenan of Swaziland, who recognized it as a distinct species and brought it to the attention of Robert Allen Dyer.

 

Encephalartos hildebrandtii A. Braun & C.D. Bouché (1874) – Honoring Johann Maria Hildebrandt (1847-1881), 19th century German explorer, botanist, and collector of the type specimen.

 

Encephalartos hirsutus P.J.H. Hurter (1996) – From the Latin hirsutus (‘hairy’), referring to the persistent tomentum.

 

Encephalartos horridus (Jacq.) Lehm. (1834) – From the Latin horridus (‘horrible’), referring to the stiff, spiny leaflets.

 

Encephalartos humilis I. Verd. (1951) – From the Latin humilis (‘humble’ or ‘lowly’), referring to the small stature.

 

Encephalartos inopinus R.A. Dyer (1964) – From the Latin opinus (‘expected’), with the modifying prefix in- (‘not’), referring to its unexpectedly dry habitat (atypical for South African cycads).

 

Encephalartos ituriensis Bamps & Lisowski (1990) – Referring to its endemic occurrence in the Ituri Forest, northeastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (Zaire), with the Latin termination -ensis (‘place of origin’).

 

Encephalartos kisambo Faden & Beentje (1989) – From its vernacular name in the Taita language of the local people of the Taita Hills region of southern Kenya, where it is endemic.

 

Encephalartos laevifolius Stapf & Burtt Davy (1926) – From the Latin laevis (‘smooth’) and folius (‘leaf’), referring to the lack of tomentum on the leaves compared to the related E. lanatus.

 

Encephalartos lanatus Stapf & Burtt Davy (1926) – From the Latin lanatus (‘woolly’), referring to the persistently tomentose apex.

 

Encephalartos latifrons Lehm. (1837) – From the Latin latus (‘broad’) and frons (fern ‘frond’ or ‘leaf’), actually a misnomer since it is the leaflets that are broad and not the leaves. 1

 

Encephalartos laurentianus De Wild. (1903) – Honoring 19th century Belgian collector Emile Laurent (1861-1904), who introduced this species into cultivation.

 

Encephalartos lebomboensis I. Verd. (1949) – Referring to the type locality in the Lebombo Mountains, northern KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa, with the Latin termination -ensis (‘place of origin’).

 

Encephalartos lehmannii Lehm. (1834) – Honoring Johann Georg Christian Lehmann (1792-1860), director of the botanical gardens in Hamburg, Germany, and researcher of cycads.

 

Encephalartos longifolius (Jacq.) Lehm. (1834) – From the Latin longis (‘long’) and folius (‘leaf’), referring to the relatively long leaves.

 

Encephalartos mackenziei L.E.Newton (2001) – Honoring Paul Mackenzie, proprietor of the Rosslyn River Garden Centre, Nairobi, Kenya, and collector of the type specimen.

 

Encephalartos macrostrobilus S. Jones & J. Wynants (1997) – From the Latin macros (‘large’) and strobilus (‘pine cone’), referring to the large cones.

 

Encephalartos manikensis (Gilliland) Gilliland (1939) – Referring to its discovery in the Manica region of southern Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe), with the Latin termination -ensis (‘place of origin’).

 

Encephalartos marunguensis Devred (1958) – Referring to its discovery in the Marungu Mountains, southeastern Zaire (now Democratic Republic of the Congo), with the Latin termination -ensis (‘place of origin’).

 

Encephalartos middelburgensis Vorster (1989) – Referring to Middelburg, Mpumalanga Province, South Africa, the town near where this species was discovered, with the Latin termination -ensis (‘place of origin’).

 

Encephalartos msinganus Vorster (1996) – Referring to its occurrence in the Msinga district, southeastern Natal (now KwaZulu-Natal) Province, South Africa, with the Latin termination -anus (‘of’).

 

Encephalartos munchii R.A. Dyer & I. Verd. (1969) – Honoring Raymond C. Munch of Zimbabwe (1901-1985), collector of cycads and student of the E. manikensis complex in Zimbabwe and Mozambique.

 

Encephalartos natalensis R.A. Dyer & I. Verd. (1951) – Referring to its discovery in the province of Natal (now KwaZulu-Natal), South Africa, with the Latin termination -ensis (‘place of origin’).

 

Encephalartos ngoyanus I. Verd. (1949) – Referring to the type locality in the Ngoya Forest, northeastern KwaZulu- Natal Province, South Africa, with the Latin termination -anus (‘of’).

 

Encephalartos nubimontanus P.J.H. Hurter (1995) – According to authority Johan Hurter (pers. comm.), the epithet is from the Latin nubilis (‘cloud’) and montanus (‘mountain’), with the Latin termination -anus (‘of’), referring to the Wolkberg region (Wolkberg translated to English literally means ‘cloud mountain’), Northern (now Limpopo) Province, South Africa, where this species is endemic (although it is now thought to be extinct in the wild). (Note: At least two other erroneous derivations for the first half of this epithet can be found in the literature: Whitelock [2002] stated that it is from the Latin nubilus, meaning ‘gray-blue’ and referring to the leaf color, while Hill and Stevenson [2009] stated that it is from the Latin nubis, meaning ‘black’, with no additional information provided.)

 

Encephalartos paucidentatus Stapf & Burtt Davy (1926) – From the Latin pauci (‘few’) and denta (‘teeth’ or ‘toothed’), referring to the relatively smooth margins of the leaflets.

 

Encephalartos poggei Asch. (1878) – Honoring Paul Pogge (1838–1884), 19th century German collector in Central Africa, who discovered it in 1876 while traveling in the Belgian Congo (now the Democratic Republic of the Congo).

 

Encephalartos princeps R.A. Dyer (1965) – According to authority Robert Allen Dyer in the original description, “[t]he specific epithet was chosen because it reflects the thought that E. princeps has had a longer history and has a more stately habit than its near allies E. lehmannii and E. trispinosus” (Whitelock, 2002). (Note: The Latin princeps literally means ‘primary’ or ‘first’.)

 

Encephalartos pterogonus R.A. Dyer & I. Verd. (1969) – From the Latin pteron (‘wing’) and gonas (seed’), referring to the distinctive wing-like and toothed appendages below the terminal facet of the microsporophylls. 2

 

Encephalartos schaijesii Malaisse, Sclavo & Crosiers (1993) – Honoring Michel Schaijes, whose collection near Kolwezi, Democratic Republic of the Congo, has advanced the knowledge of plants of that region.

 

Encephalartos schmitzii Malaisse (1969) – Honoring André Schmitz, director of the Laboratory of Silviculture, University of the Congo, who discovered this species while on a botanical expedition in 1955.

 

Encephalartos sclavoi De Luca, D.W. Stev. & A. Moretti (1989) – Honoring Jean Pierre Sclavo of France, wellknown student and collector of cycads, who first recognized it as an unknown species.

 

Encephalartos senticosus Vorster (1996) – From the Latin senticosus (‘full of thorns’), referring to the spiny leaflet margins.

 

Encephalartos septentrionalis Schweinf. (1871) – From the Latin septentrionalis (‘north’ or ‘northern’), referring to this species being one of the northernmost of the central African cycads.

 

Encephalartos tegulaneus Melville (1957) – From the Latin tegula (‘tile’), referring to the overlapping microsporophylls that resemble roof tiles. subsp. powysii Miringu & Beentje (1999) – Honoring Gilfrid Powys, former district officer (Meru District, Kenya) and avid plantsman who introduced the second author to the species.

 

Encephalartos transvenosus Stapf & Burtt Davy (1926) – From the Latin trans (‘across’) and venosus (‘veins’), mistakenly referring to purported “crosswise veinlets” connecting the primary longitudinal veins.

 

Encephalartos trispinosus (Hook.) R.A. Dyer (1965) – From the Latin tri- (‘three’) and spinosus (‘spines’), referring to typical median leaflets, which have two marginal spines and a terminal spine.

 

Encephalartos turneri Lavranos & D.L. Goode (1985) – Honoring Ian S. Turner of Zimbabwe, well known student and collector of cycads who provided specimens and field notes for its description.

 

Encephalartos umbeluziensis R.A. Dyer (1951) – Referring to its occurrence along the Mbeluzi (Umbeluzi) River, Swaziland, with the Latin termination -ensis (‘place of origin’).

 

Encephalartos villosus Lem. (1867) – From the Latin villosus (‘softly hairy’), referring to the densely woolly crown and emerging leaves.

 

Encephalartos whitelockii P.J.H. Hurter (1995) – Honoring Loran Whitelock of Los Angeles, California, wellknown contemporary student and collector of cycads.

 

Encephalartos woodii Sander (1908) – Honoring John Medley Wood (1827-1915), curator of the Natal Botanic Gardens (later the Durban Botanic Gardens), who discovered the original and only known specimen. __________________________________

 

 

Lepidozamia hopei Regel (1876) – Honoring Louis Hope (1817-1894), known in Australia as father of the Queensland sugar industry.

 

Lepidozamia peroffskyana Regel (1857) – Honoring Count V.A. Peroffsky, governor of Orenburg Province, Russia, and valued patron of the St. Petersburg Botanical Garden, where the type plant was cultivated. (Note: Whitelock [2002] erroneously stated that it honors Leo Alexejewitsch Perowski, mineralogist and chief administrator of the St. Petersburg Botanical Garden.)

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Macrozamia cardiacensis P.I. Forst. & D.L. Jones (1998) – Referring to its occurrence on a precipitous site known locally as Cardiac Hill, Queensland, Australia, with the Latin termination -ensis (‘place of origin’)..

 

Macrozamia communis L.A.S. Johnson (1959) – From the Latin communis (‘common’), referring to its abundance in dense stands.

 

Macrozamia concinna D.L. Jones (1998) – From the Latin concinnus (‘neat’ or ‘elegant’), referring to the compact and tidy habit. 3

 

Macrozamia conferta D.L. Jones & P.I. Forst. (1994) – From the Latin confertus (‘crowded’), referring to the close crowding of the leaflets on the rachis.

 

Macrozamia cranei D.L. Jones & P.I. Forst. (1994) – Honoring orchid enthusiast and builder Ralph Crane, who discovered this species.

 

Macrozamia crassifolia P.I. Forst. & D.L. Jones (1994) – From the Latin crassus (‘thick’) and folius (‘leaf’), although technically referring to leaves, this epithet is actually referring to the thick-textured leaflets.

 

Macrozamia diplomera (F. Muell.) L.A.S. Johnson (1959) – From the Greek diplo- (‘double’) and -merus (‘part’ or ‘member’), referring to the dichotomously divided leaflets.

 

Macrozamia douglasii W. Hill ex F.M. Bailey (1883) – Honoring pastoralist and politician John Douglas (1828- 1904), premier of Queensland, Australia, and collector of the type specimen.

 

Macrozamia dyeri (F. Muell.) C.A. Gardner (1930) – Honoring English botanist Sir William Turner Thiselton- Dyer (1843-1928), director of the Royal Botanic Gardens Kew.

 

Macrozamia elegans K.D. Hill & D.L. Jones (1998) – From the Latin elegans (‘elegant’), referring to the neat and pleasing habit.

 

Macrozamia fawcettii C. Moore (1884) – Honoring C. Fawcett, police magistrate who collected the type specimen.

 

Macrozamia fearnsidei D.L. Jones (1991) – Honoring grazier Geoff Fearnside, owner of Wallaroo station, Queensland, Australia, for his conservation efforts of the cycads growing there.

 

Macrozamia flexuosa C. Moore (1884) – From the Latin flexuosus (‘zigzag’ or ‘bent alternately in opposite directions’), referring to the spirally twisted leaves.

 

Macrozamia fraseri Miq. (1842) – Honoring Charles Fitzgerald Fraser (1883-1951), colonial botanist of New South Wales and collector of the type specimen (J. Hurter, pers. comm.).

 

Macrozamia glaucophylla D.L. Jones (1998) – From the Greek glauco- (‘bluish waxy bloom’) and -phyllon (‘leaf’), referring to the bluish glaucous leaves.

 

Macrozamia heteromera C. Moore (1884) – From the Greek heteros (‘different’) and -merus (‘part’ or ‘member’), referring to the divided and undivided leaflets.

 

Macrozamia humilis D.L. Jones (1998) – From the Latin humilis (‘humble’ or ‘low’), referring to the dwarf habit.

 

Macrozamia johnsonii D.L. Jones & K.D. Hill (1992) – Honoring Australian botanist Dr. Lawrence Alexander Sydney Johnson (1925- 1997), director of the Royal Botanic Gardens Sydney and notable student of Macrozamia in the 1950’s.

 

Macrozamia lomandroides D.L. Jones (1991) – From the genus Lomandra, with the Latin termination -oides (‘resembling’), referring to the perceived resemblance of this species to a clump of the Australian monocot Lomandra.

 

Macrozamia longispina P.I. Forst. & D.L. Jones (1998) – From the Latin longi- (‘long’) and spina (‘spine’), referring to the prominent apical spines on the apices of the megasporophylls.

 

Macrozamia lucida L.A.S. Johnson (1959) – From the Latin lucidus (‘shining’), referring to the highly glossy leaflets.

 

Macrozamia macdonnellii (F. Muell. ex Miq.) A. DC. (1868) – Referring to the MacDonnell Ranges, southern Northern Territory, Australia, which form a large part of the habitat of this species.

 

Macrozamia machinii P.I. Forst. & D.L. Jones (1994) – Honoring Peter J. Machin, botanist with the Queensland Herbarium.

 

Macrozamia macleayi Miq. (1868) – Honoring Sir William John Macleay (1820-1891), Scottish pastoralist, patron of science, and parliamentarian, whose lifelong interest in science resulted in a large collection of specimens, bequeathed to the University of Sydney, Australia, upon his death and now forming the basis of the Macleay Museum. 4

 

Macrozamia miquelii (F. Muell.) A. DC. (1868) – Honoring Friedrich Anton Wilhelm Miquel (1811-1871), Dutch botanist who served as director of the Rotterdam Botanical Gardens and the Amsterdam Botanical Garden.

 

Macrozamia montana K.D. Hill (1998) – From the Latin montanus (pertaining to mountains), referring to its occurrence on steep, high ridges.

 

Macrozamia moorei F. Muell. (1881) – Honoring botanist Charles E. Moore (1820-1905), director of the Royal Botanic Gardens Sydney and notable student of Macrozamia in the 1850’s.

 

Macrozamia mountperriensis F.M. Bailey (1886) – Referring to its discovery near the town of Mount Perry, Queensland, Australia, with the Latin termination -ensis (‘place of origin’).

 

Macrozamia occidua D.L. Jones & P.I. Forst. (1994) – From the Latin occidua (‘of the west’), referring to its occurrence in Sundown National Park, Queensland, Australia (alluding to the setting of the sun in the west).

 

Macrozamia parcifolia P.I. Forst. & D.L. Jones (1994) – From the Latin parcus (‘sparing’ or ‘frugal’) and folius (‘leaf’), although technically referring to leaves, this epithet is actually referring to the fine, wispy leaflets.

 

Macrozamia pauli-guilielmi W. Hill & F. Muell. (1859) – Honoring Prince Paul William (Latinized to Pauli- Guilielmi) of Württemburg, Germany.

 

Macrozamia platyrhachis F.M. Bailey (1898) – From the Greek platy- (‘broad’) and rhachis (‘leaf axis above the petiole’), referring to the strongly flattened rachis.

 

Macrozamia plurinervia (L.A.S. Johnson) D.L. Jones (1991) – From the Latin pluri- (‘several’ or ‘many’) and -nervius (‘nerves’ or ‘veins’), referring to its wider leaflets with more veins compared to related taxa.

 

Macrozamia polymorpha D.L. Jones (1998) – From the Greek poly- (‘many’) and -morphe (‘form’), referring to the divided and undivided leaflets.

 

Macrozamia reducta K.D. Hill & D.L. Jones (1998) – From the Latin reductus (‘reduced’), referring to its smaller habit compared to the related M. communis.

 

Macrozamia riedlei (Gaudich.) C.A. Gardner (1930) – Honoring Anselme Riedle (1775-1801), friend of the great French explorer Nicolas Baudin who accompanied him on scientific expeditions (J. Hurter, pers. comm.).

 

Macrozamia secunda C. Moore (1884) – From the Latin secundus (‘secund’, meaning having organs turned to the same side), referring to the arrangement of the leaflets on the rachis, with their upper surfaces turned toward each other to produce a keeled (boat-shaped) leaf.

 

Macrozamia serpentina D.L. Jones & P.I. Forst. (2001) – Referring to the serpentine soil of the type locality.

 

Macrozamia spiralis (Salisb.) Miq. (1842) – From the Latin spiralis (‘spiraled’), referring to the (sometimes) twisted rachis.

 

Macrozamia stenomera L.A.S. Johnson (1959) – From the Greek stenos (‘narrow’) and -merus (‘part’ or ‘member’), referring to the finely divided leaflets.

 

Macrozamia viridis D.L. Jones & P.I. Forst. (1994) – From the Latin viridis (‘green’), referring to the bright green leaflets.

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Microcycas calocoma (Miq.) A. DC. (1868) – From the Greek calos (‘beautiful’) and come (‘hair’), referring to its beautiful crown of leaves.

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Stangeria eriopus (Kunze) Baill. (1892) – From the Greek prefix erio- (‘woolly’) and -pus (‘footed’), referring to the woolly leaf bases. 5

 

Zamia acuminata Oerst. ex Dyer (1884) – From the Latin acuminatus (meaning to taper gradually to a narrow point), referring to the acuminate shape of the leaflets.

 

Zamia amazonum D.W. Stev. (2001) – Referring to its wide distribution throughout the upper Amazon basin.

 

Zamia amblyphyllidia D.W. Stev. (1987) – From the Greek amblys (‘blunt’) and phyllon (‘leaf’), although technically referring to leaves, this epithet is actually referring to the obovate leaflets.

 

Zamia amplifolia hort. Bull ex Mast. (1878) – From the Latin amplus (‘ample’ or ‘large’) and folium (‘leaf’), while originally intended to refer to the very large leaflets, the epithet actually refers to the leaves but is not really a misnomer.

 

Zamia angustifolia Jacq. (1789) – From the Latin angustus (‘narrow’) and folium (‘leaf’), while originally intended to refer to the very narrow leaflets, the epithet actually refers to the leaves and in this case is somewhat of a misnomer because the leaves are not really narrow for Zamia (although the leaflets are).

 

Zamia boliviana (Brongn.) A. DC. (1868) – From Bolivia, with the Latin suffix -ana (‘a connection’), referring to the country of endemicity.

 

Zamia bussellii Schutzman, R.S. Adams, J.L. Haynes & Whitelock (Schutzman et al., 2008) – Honoring Larry Bussell, well-known plantsman whose endeavors led to a greater understanding of Mesoamerican cycads. (Note: Some workers believe this species should be synonymized with Z. onanreyesii G. Nelson & G.G. Sandoval [honoring Onán Reyes, student at the Honduran National Autonomous University who participated in the expedition during which the type specimen was collected] published the same year [Nelson Sutherland & Sandoval González, 2008]; however, the authors of the latter paper have yet to unequivocally substantiate the actual date of publication.)

 

Zamia chigua Seem. (1854) – From chigua, a Spanish rendering of the indigenous Indian name for cycads in Panama and Colombia.

 

Zamia cremnophila Vovides, Schutzman & Dehgan (1988) – From the Greek cremnos (‘cliff’) and philo (‘loving’), referring to its cliff-dwelling habitat preference.

 

Zamia cunaria Dressler & D.W. Stev. (1993) – Honoring the Cuna Indians of Panama, who inhabit the area of endemicity and who use the seeds to make necklaces.

 

Zamia decumbens Calonje, Meerman, M.P. Griff. & Hoese (Calonje et al., 2009) – From the Latin decumbens (meaning prostrate on the earth with the tips turning up), referring to the decumbent habit of the stems.

 

Zamia disodon D.W. Stev. & Sabato (2001) – Said by authorities Dennis Stevenson and Sergio Sabato to refer to the doubly toothed leaflet margins.

 

Zamia dressleri D.W. Stev. (1993) – Honoring Robert Dressler, botanist and taxonomist with the Missouri Botanical Garden, who aided in the study of cycads in Panama and who was the first to recognize it as a distinct species.

 

Zamia elegantissima Schutzman, Vovides & Adams (1998) – From the Latin elegans (‘elegant’), referring to the elegant habit.

 

Zamia encephalartoides D.W. Stev. (2001) – From Encephalartos, an African genus of cycads, with the Greek termination -oides (‘resembling’), referring to the robust, arborescent habit resembling more a species of Encephalartos than most other species of Zamia.

 

Zamia fairchildiana L.D. Gómez (1982) – According to authority Luis Diego Gómez (pers. comm.), the epithet honors Dr. David Fairchild (1869-1954), famed American botanist and plant explorer. (Note: Hill and Stevenson [2009] incorrectly state that the epithet honors David Fairchild’s son, Dr. Graham Fairchild.)

 

Zamia fischeri Miq. (1845) – At least three different etymologies can be found in the literature: Jones (1993) stated that the epithet honors M. Fischer, gardener at St. Petersburg Botanic Garden, Russia; Whitelock (2002) stated that it honors Friedrich Ernst Ludwig von Fischer (1782-1854), Russian 6 botanist of German origin who was director of the St. Petersburg Botanic Garden; and Hill and Stevenson (2009) stated that it honors Gustav Fischer, horticulturist and cycad enthusiast of the mid- 19th century. (Note: Although there is some debate on this issue, consensus is that the epithet honors Friedrich Fischer and that references to Gustav Fischer, often seen in the literature, are incorrect [R. Osborne, pers. comm.].)

 

Zamia furfuracea L. f., in Aiton (1789) – From the Latin furfuraceus (‘scurfy’), referring to the reddishbrown scales on the newly emerging leaves.

 

Zamia gentryi Dodson (1998) – Honoring Alwyn Howard Gentry (1945-1993), botanist and botanical explorer of the neotropics who participated in the collection of the type specimen.

 

Zamia hamannii A.S. Taylor, J.L. Haynes & Holzman (Taylor et al., 2008) – Honoring Gregg Hamann, who discovered this species and financed the expedition during which most of the data and samples that allowed it to be described were collected.

 

Zamia herrerae Calderón & Standl. (1924) – Honoring El Salvadorian scientist Héctor Herrera.

 

Zamia hymenophyllidia D.W. Stev. (2001) – From the Greek hymen (‘thin’ or ‘membranous’) and phyllon (‘leaf’), although technically referring to leaves, this epithet is actually referring to the extremely thin, almost transparent leaflets.

 

Zamia imperialis A.S. Taylor, J.L. Haynes & Holzman (Taylor et al., 2008) – Referring to its majestic growth habit and the regal appearance of its huge, red-emergent, deeply plicate leaflets.

 

Zamia inermis Vovides, J.D. Rees & Vázq. Torres (1983) – From the Latin inermis (‘unarmed’), referring to the unarmed (spineless) petiole and rachis.

 

Zamia integrifolia L. f., in Aiton (1789) – From the Latin integer (‘entire’) and folium (‘leaf’), this epithet is actually a double misnomer because ‘integrifolia’ literally means entire leaves but was intended to refer to the leaflets, which are not entire but have small callous teeth in the upper fourth.

 

Zamia ipetiensis D.W. Stev. (1993) – Referring to the Ipeti Indians, who inhabit the area of endemicity, or the nearby town of Colono Ipeti, or both, with the Latin termination -ensis (‘place of origin’).

 

Zamia lacandona B. Schutzman & Vovides (1998) – Referring to its occurrence in the Lacandona rainforest of Eastern Chiapas, which is in turn named for the Lacandona Indians of Mayan descent.

 

Zamia lecointei Ducke (1915) – Honoring Paul LeCointe, botanist who studied the Amazonian region of Brazil and who accompanied Adolf Ducke when this species was discovered.

 

Zamia lindenii Regel ex André (1875) – Honoring Jean Jules Linden (1817-1898), who received plants of this species from Benedikt Roezl and introduced them into cultivation. (Note: This name is considered synonymous with Z. poeppigiana by the authors of the World List of Cycads [Hill et al., 2007], but Lindström [2009] recently provided support for its validity as a distinct taxon.)

 

Zamia lindleyi Warsz. ex A. Dietrich (1851) – Honoring John Lindley (1799-1865), British botanist and professor of botany at University College, London.

 

Zamia loddigesii Miq. (1843) – Honoring Joachim Conrad Loddiges (1738-1826), London based supplier of exotic plants, close correspondent of Friedrich Anton Wilhelm Miquel, and outstanding general systematist and monographer of cycads in the 19th century.

 

Zamia lucayana Britton (1907) – Referring to the Lucayana Indians, who originally inhabited the Bahamas.

 

Zamia macrochiera D.W. Stev. (2004) – From the Greek macros (‘large’) and chiera (‘hand’), referring to the large, gland-like collar separating the leaflets from the petiolules.

 

Zamia manicata Linden ex Regel (1876) – From the Latin manicatus (‘long-sleeved’), referring to the petiolule of the leaflets.

 

Zamia meermanii Calonje (Calonje, 2009) – Honoring Dutch ecologist Jan Meerman, who discovered this species in central Belize. 7

 

Zamia melanorrhachis D.W. Stev. (2001) – From the Greek melano- (‘black’ or ‘very dark’) and the Latin rhachis (‘stem’), referring to the dark brown to almost dark purple rachis.

 

Zamia montana A. Braun (1875) – From the Latin montanus (pertaining to mountains), referring to the submontane to montane habitat where this species grows.

 

Zamia monticola Chamb. (1926) – From the Latin montis (‘mountain’), with the suffix -cola (‘dweller’ or ‘inhabitant’), erroneously referring to its presumed mountainous habitat in Veracruz, Mexico, due to the mistaken origin of the original cultivated plant. (Note: This species is actually endemic to rocky lowland slopes in primary and secondary rainforests in Guatemala [Hill & Stevenson, 2009].)

 

Zamia muricata Willd. (1806) – From the Latin muricatus (meaning rough with short, hard points), referring to the small, sharp teeth of the leaflets margins or the spines on the rachis (or both).

 

Zamia nesophila A.S. Taylor, J.L. Haynes & Holzman (Taylor et al., 2008) – From the Greek neso (‘island’) and phila (‘loving’), referring to its propensity for an insular existence.

 

Zamia neurophyllidia D.W. Stev. (1993) – From the Greek neuro (‘nerve’) and phyllon (‘leaf’), although technically referring to leaves, this epithet is actually referring to the strongly nerved appearance of the leaflets.

 

Zamia obliqua A. Braun (1875) – From the Latin obliquus (‘oblique’), referring to the oblique angle of insertion of the leaflets on the rachis.

 

Zamia oligodonta E. Calderón-Sáenz & D.W. Stev. (2003) – From the Greek olig (‘few’) and odont (‘tooth’), referring to the few teeth on the leaflet margins. (Note: Lindström [2009] recently questioned the validity of this name, providing evidence that it is a synonym of Z. montana.)

 

Zamia oreillyi C. Nelson (Nelson Sutherland, 2006) – Honoring Carlos Oreilly, student at the Honduran National Autonomous University, who participated in the expedition during which the type specimen was collected.

 

Zamia paucijuga Wieland (1916) – From the Latin pauci- (‘few’) and -jugus (‘paired’), referring to the few pairs of leaflets of the type specimen, which is an unfortunate misnomer because leaves of mature plants actually have many leaflet pairs.

 

Zamia poeppigiana Mart. & Eichler (1863) – Honoring Eduard Friedrich Poeppig (1798-1868), German botanist, zoologist, and explorer from Leipzig who first collected it during an expedition to Brazil and Peru.

 

Zamia polymorpha D.W. Stev. (1998) – From the Greek poly- (‘many’) and -morphe (‘form’), referring to the extreme variability in leaf and leaflet morphology among plants of this species. (Note: Calonje and Meerman [2009] propose that this taxon is synonymous with Z. prasina; this issue is presently under consideration by the authors of the next edition of the World List [R. Osborne, pers. comm.].)

 

Zamia portoricensis Urban (1899) – Referring to the type specimen being from Puerto Rico, with the Latin termination -ensis (‘place of origin’).

 

Zamia prasina W. Bull (1881) – From the Latin prasinus (‘leek green’), referring to the bright grass-green leaflets.

 

Zamia pseudomonticola L.D. Gómez (1982) – Referring to its presumed similarity to Z. monticola.

 

Zamia pseudoparasitica Yates in Seem. (1854) – From the Greek pseudo (‘false’) and the Latin parasiticus (‘parasitic’), referring to its epiphytic (not parasitic) habit and habitat.

 

Zamia pumila L. (1763) – From the Latin pumilus (‘dwarf’ or ‘short’), referring to the small size. (Note: Hill and Stevenson [2009] stated that, while the epithet literally means dwarf or pygmy, Z. pumila is not the smallest of this species of Zamia when compared to Z. pygmaea or Z. fischeri—but it was the only Zamia species known when Linneaus described it in 1763. Linneaus had included the then known cycads, C. circinalis and Z. pumila, in the pinnately-leaved palms; consequently, in comparison he considered the Zamia to be a dwarfed palm.)

 

Zamia purpurea Vovides, J.D. Rees & Vázq. Torres (1983) – From the Latin purpureus (‘purple’), referring to the deep reddish-purple emerging leaves and purplish immature female cones.

 

Zamia pygmaea Sims (1815) – From the Latin pygmaeus (‘pygmy’ or ‘dwarf’), referring to the small stature.

 

Zamia pyrophylla Calonje, D.W. Stev. & A. Lindstr. (Calonje et al., 2010) – From the Greek pyro (‘heat’ or ‘fire’) and phyllon (‘leaf’), referring to the glowing orange and red emergent leaves.

 

Zamia roezlii Linden (1873) – Honoring Benedikt Roezl (1824-1885), prodigious plant collector who traveled throughout Mexico, Central America, and South America in the of the latter half of the 19th century and who first collected this species.

 

Zamia sandovalii C. Nelson (Nelson Sutherland, 2006) – Honoring German Sandoval, herbarium assistant at the Honduran National Autonomous University, who participated in the expedition during which the type specimen was collected.

 

Zamia skinneri Warsz. ex A. Dietrich (1851) – Honoring George Ure Skinner (1804-1867), amateur botanist and plant collector who worked mainly in Central America.

 

Zamia soconuscensis Schutzman, Vovides & Dehgan (1988) – Referring to its endemic occurrence in the Sierra del Soconusco (Sierra Madre de Chiapas), Mexico, with the Latin termination -ensis (‘place of origin’).

 

Zamia spartea A. DC. (1868) – At least three different etymologies can be found in the literature: Whitelock (2002) stated that the epithet is from the Latin spartea (‘resembling grass’), referring to the long, narrow leaflets that are difficult to distinguish from grass; Hill and Stevenson (2009) stated that it refers to ‘sparse’, but that it is unknown whether it is in reference to the narrow leaflets or the few apical teeth on the leaflet margins; R. Osborne (pers. comm.) maintains that the epithet alludes to the broom genus Spartium (Fabaceae), in reference to the narrow and tapered leaflets.

 

Zamia splendens Schutzman (1984) – From the Latin splendens (‘shining’ or ‘brilliant’), referring to the striking (and shiny) appearance of the leaflets. (Note: This species is not recognized by the authors of the World List of Cycads [Hill et al., 2007], but it is included here because there is support for its validity as a distinct taxon [see Schutzman, 2004].)

 

Zamia standleyi Schutzman (1989) – Honoring Paul C. Standley (1884-1963), botanist and taxonomist well known for his thorough and prodigious work on the flora of Mexico and Central America.

 

Zamia stricta Miq. (1851) – From the Latin strictus (‘drawn together’, ‘very upright’, or ‘very straight), referring to the thin, straight leaflets.

 

Zamia tuerckheimii Donn. Sm. (1903) – Honoring Hans von Türckheim (1853-1920), German plant collector who managed a coffee plantation in Guatemala and who is credited for its discovery.

 

Zamia ulei U. Dammer (1907) – Honors Ernst Heinrich Georg Ule (1854-1915), German plant collector who conducted extensive research in the Amazon and who first collected this species in Brazil.

 

Zamia urep B. Walln. (1996) – Whitelock (2002) stated that, according to authority Bruno Wallnöfer (pers. comm.), the specific epithet has no meaning. (It should be noted, however, that ‘urep’ is an anagram of Peru, where this species is endemic.)

 

Zamia variegata Warsz. (1845) – From the Latin variegatus (‘variegated’), referring to the flecks of yellow on the leaflets.

 

Zamia vazquezii D.W. Stev. (1998) – Honoring Mario Vázquez-Torres, Mexican botanist and student of Mexican and Central American cycads who first discovered this species.

 

Zamia wallisii A. Braun (1875) – Honoring Gustav Wallis (1830-1878), German botanist, plant collector, and explorer of the latter half of the 19th century who first collected this species in the cloud forests of Antioquia Department, Colombia.

 

 

REFERENCES

Calonje, M. 2009. A new cliff-dwelling species of Zamia (Zamiaceae) from Belize. Journal of the Botanical Research

Institute of Texas 3:23-29.

Calonje, M. & J. Meerman. 2009. What is Zamia prasina (Zamiaceae: Cycadales)? Journal of the Botanical Research

Institute of Texas 3:43-49.

Calonje, M., D.W. Stevenson, C. Calonje, Y.A. Ramos & A. Lindstrom. 2010. A new species of Zamia from Chocó,

Colombia (Cycadales, Zamiaceae). Brittonia 62:80-85.

Calonje, M., J. Meerman, P. Griffith & G. Hoese. 2009. A new species of Zamia (Zamiaceae) from the Maya mountains

of Belize. Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas 3:31-41.

Grobbelaar, N. 2002. Cycads, with Special Reference to the Southern African Species. Published by the author, Pretoria,

South Africa.

Haynes, J.L., L.M. Whitelock, B. Schutzman & R. Adams. 2008. A new endemic Ceratozamia from Honduras

(Cycadales: Zamiaceae). Cycad Newsletter 31(2/3):16-22.

Hill, K. & R. Osborne. 2001. Cycads of Australia. Kangaroo Press, New South Wales, Australia.

Hill, K.D. & D.W. Stevenson. 2009. The Cycad Pages. Royal Botanic Gardens Sydney, Australia. Website:

<http://plantnet.rbgsyd.nsw.gov.au/PlantNet/cycad/cycadop.html>. Accessed July 2009.

Hill, K.D., D.W. Stevenson & R. Osborne. 2007. The World List of Cycads. In: A.P. Vovides, D.W. Stevenson & R.

Osborne (eds.), Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Cycad Biology, Xalapa, Veracruz, Mexico.

Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 97:454-483.

Jones, D.L. 1993. Cycads of the World. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.

Lindström, A.J. & K.D. Hill. 2007. The genus Cycas (Cycadaceae) in India. Telopea 11:463-488.

Lindström, A.J., K.D. Hill & L.C. Stanberg. 2008. The genus Cycas (Cycadaceae) in the Philippines. Telopea 12:119-

145.

Lindström, A.J., K.D. Hill & L.C. Stanberg. 2009. The genus Cycas (Cycadaceae) in Indonesia. Telopea 12:385-418.

Madulid, D.A. & E.M.G. Agoo. 2005. A new species of Cycas (Cycadaceae) from the Philippines. Blumea 50:519-522.

Nelson Sutherland, C.H. 2006. Dos plantas del género Zamia (Gimnosperma) nuevas de Honduras. Ceiba 46:41-44.

Nelson Sutherland, C.H. & G.G. Sandoval González. 2008. Una especie nueva de Zamia (Zamiaceae) de Honduras.

Ceiba 49:135-136.

Nicolalde-Morejón, F., F. Vergara-Silva, J. González-Astorga, A.P. Vovides & A.E. de los Monteros. 2009. Reciprocal

illumination of morphological characters upon a molecular hypothesis supports the proposal of a new species of

cycad from Mexico. Systematics & Biodiversity 7:73-79.

Osborne, R., D.W. Stevenson & A.P. Vovides. 2009. What is Ceratozamia fuscoviridis? Delpinoa 48:5-10.

Pérez-Farrera, M.A., A.P. Vovides, R. Martinez-Camilo, N. Martinez Melendez & C. Iglesias. 2009. A reassessment of

the Ceratozamia miqueliana species complex (Zamiaceae) of southeastern Mexico, with comments on species

relationships. Systematics & Biodiversity 7:433-443.

Schutzman, B. 2004. The history of Zamia splendens. Cycad Newsletter 27(2):8-9.

Schutzman, B., R. S. Adams, J. L. Haynes & L. M. Whitelock. 2008. A new endemic Zamia from Honduras (Cycadales:

Zamiaceae). Cycad Newsletter 31(2/3):22-26.

Singh, R. & P. Radha. 2006. A new species of Cycas from the Malabar Coast, Western Ghats, India. Brittonia 58:119-

124.

Singh, R. & P. Radha. 2008. A new species of Cycas (Cycadaceae) from Karnataka, India. Botanical Journal of the

Linnean Society 158:430-435.

Taylor, A.S., J.L. Haynes & G. Holzman. 2008. Taxonomical, nomenclatural, and biogeographical revelations in the

Zamia skinneri species complex (Cycadales: Zamiaceae) of Central America. Botanical Journal of the Linnean

Society 158:399-429.

Vovides, A.P., S. Avendaño, M.A. Peréz-Farrera & J. González-Astorga. 2008. A new species of Ceratozamia

(Cycadales, Zamiaceae) from Veracruz, Mexico. Novon 18:109-114.

Vovides, A.P., M.A. Pérez-Farrera, B. Schutzman, C. Iglesias, L. Hernandez-Sandoval & M. Martinez. 2004. A new

species of Ceratozamia (Zamiaceae) from Oaxaca, Mexico with comments on habitat and relationships. Botanical

Journal of the Linnean Society 157:169-175.

Whitelock, L.M. 2002. The Cycads. Timber Press, Portland, OR.





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Etymological Compendium of Cycad Names
Cycad Society Compliation by Jody Haynes




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Meanings of Cycad Names